SAWAP – ETHIOPIA
SLMP Ethiopia: Project Overview
The Government of Ethiopia (GoE) recognizes that land degradation is a major economic growth constraining factor not only as an impediment to accelerated and sustainable socioeconomic development, but also as a serious obstacle to the wellbeing of its people. Driven by this, the GoE has developed a nationwide program known as Ethiopian Strategic Investment Framework (ESIF) to guide a systematic approach to combat pressure over the land resources. The international community through its bilateral and multilateral partners has also thrown its weight behind the government’s efforts in this regard. Together they successfully implemented a five-year Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP-1) in the 2008/09-2012/13 period under the Government’s Sustainable Land Management Program led and implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA).Understandably, land degradation challenge remains formidable. So is the transformation of the smallholder agricultural economy. This coupled with the encouraging results obtained during the SLMP-1 implementation has prompted the government and its development partners to launch a follow-on SLMP-2 known as Sustainable Land Management Project-2. It is financially supported by the World Bank, Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Government of Norway. The World Bank’s credit requires the GoE to take full responsibility of preparing a SLMP-2 Implementation Manual (PIM) acceptable to the Bank.
For more information please visit http://www.slmethiopia.info.et
SLMP II Ethiopia: Project Objective The continuation of Ethiopia’s determination pertaining to the reduction of land degradation, and the willingness of the bilateral and multilateral development partners to extend the SLMP-1 collaboration, SLMP-2 has been designed and it is about to move on to the implementation process. The SLMP-2's Development and Global Environment Objective is to reduce land degradation and improve land productivity in selected watersheds in targeted regions in Ethiopia. It is to be implemented in the same regions with increased number of the watersheds, which now is 135 including the erstwhile 45 watersheds. That is, there will be additional 90 watersheds. The objective would be achieved through the provision of capital investments, technical assistance and capacity building for small holder farmers in the watersheds and government institutions at national and sub-national levels. Four indicators are specified to help determine the extent of results attainment indicating the realization of that measure to which the development and environment objective.
- Total incremental land area brought under sustainable and climate-smart/resilient land and water management practices (ha);
- Total area restored or reforested/afforested on both individual and communal land (ha); and
- Increase in the amount of carbon biomass in the intervention areas (tons carbon/ha).
The implementation of the SLMP-2 takes place in six of the nine regions of the country. They are: Amhara, Beneshangul-Gumuz, Gambella, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR), and Tigray. Specifically, 135 watersheds/woredas (including those 45 watersheds that constituted the operational areas of SLMP-1) are involved. The SLMP-2 is to be implemented in 937 rural kebeles. Direct and indirect beneficiaries of the SLMP-2 will approximately number 1,850,000 people, consisting of
(i) up to 832,500 people who belong to households that directly benefit from watershed and landscape management interventions;
(ii) 344,800 people expected to benefit directly from the different stakeholders training and capacity building activities;
(iii) 500,000 people that benefit directly from the rural land administration and certification schemes; and
(iv) 1,020,000 people that benefit indirectly from improved watersheds and landscapes such as improved water flow downstream, reduced siltation to reservoirs, and reduced risk to erosion and mudslides.
The WB and GoE has signed a financing agreement on December 10, 2013 to support the achievement of the above objective of SLM project in 135 Watersheds located in Oromia (39 watersheds), Amhara (34 watersheds), SNNP (31 watersheds), Tigray (14 watersheds), Benishangul Gumuz (11 watersheds) and Gambela (6 watersheds), through both financial and technical assistance. The total five year budget of this project amounts to 107.61 million USD of which 50 million USD (46.46%) is loan provided by IDA, 42.65 million USD (39.63%) is grant from Norway Gov’t, 12.96 million USD (12.04%) is grant from GEF and 2 million USD (1.87%) is financial contribution of Ethiopian Gov’t. According to PAD, the community contribution for the project is estimated to be 20% of the total project cost which is mainly through labor contribution.
This component has two sub-components, namely: (1) Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Public and Communal Lands, and (2) Homestead and Farmland Development, Livelihood Improvements and Climate Smart Agriculture. The objective of this component is to support scaling up and adoption of appropriate sustainable land and water management technologies and practices by smallholder farmers and communities in the selected watersheds/woredas. This objective would be achieved through the financing of demand-driven sub SLMP-2 aimed at the introduction of tested watershed management practices such as land and water conservation, afforestation/reforestation, rehabilitation of degraded areas, protection of ecologically critical ecosystems, conservation agriculture such as no-/low tillage, agroforestry, climate-smart agriculture, and pasture management (see Annex 1 for further details). Another relevant goal of this sub-component is to increase carbon stocks at the watershed level and to enhance productivity, resilience and carbon sequestration through the promotion and adoption of climate-smart technologies and practices.
The SLMP-2 appraisal document stipulates four performance monitoring indicators including: Total number of land users (households) adopting sustainable and climate-smart/resilient land management practices on individual lands disaggregated by gender;
- Total rehabilitated land area in hectares (individual and communal) brought under a climate-smart watershed management system as a result of the SLMP-2;
- Carbon sequestered below and above ground (ton Carbon/ha) as a result of the SLMP-2; and
Increase in per cent of households adopting and applying backyard crop (including fruit trees, vegetable gardens), agro-processing and livestock management practices in the targeted watersheds. Up to 832,500 people who belong to households that directly benefit from watershed and landscape management interventions at the site level; and 1,020,000 people will benefit indirectly from improved watersheds and landscapes such as improved water flow downstream, reduced siltation to reservoirs, or reduced risk to erosion and mudslide. More detailed information is provided below by sub-component.
Under this component SLMP-2 will emphasize to develop capacity (knowledge, experience, skill and institutional set up) of the facilitators and implementers from the federal to local levels, agricultural research organizations and academia and other stakeholders including service providers such as extension services, seed and seedling producers, marketing entities and other private entrepreneurs involved in the sustainable management of natural resources for successful adaptation and adoption of sustainable and climate-smart land and water management activities. Furthermore, the capacity of the responsible institutions for land administration and certification, biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, adaptation/resilience to climate change will be enhanced. SLMP-2 will also focus on the review, harmonization and revision of the legislative, civil code and the regulation, stated for registration of formal and informal associations, policy and regulatory frameworks and partnership and networking for sustainable land and water management at the federal, regional, zonal and woreda levels. SLMP-2 will also emphasize on the identifying of gaps with regards to indigenous and exotic knowledge, experiences and skills, and documentation of same to facilitate learning, scaling out and scaling up best practices. The expected performance indicators of this component include: Increase in number of beneficiaries satisfied with services delivered;
- Number of land users (small holder farmers disaggregated by gender) trained in (a) planning and implementation of techniques of sustainable land management practices, (b) entrepreneurship, business development and management, and (c) land rights and registration awareness;
- Number of key service providers (disaggregated by gender) trained in (a) community-based watershed management, (b) cadastral surveying, rural land administration, certification and land use planning, (c) M&E, financial planning and procurement and other cross-cutting issues;
- Number of woredas with well-equipped information centres on sustainable and climate smart/resilient land management practices as a result of SLMP-2; and,
- Number of SLM related strategies developed or improved.
Land in Ethiopia remains a public property with individuals, communities, state companies, cooperatives and institutions having only the use right option. The right of an individual leaseholder includes the right to transfer to legal heirs and the right to lease land out. The Ethiopian Government has advanced forward towards strengthening the land administration and use systems to address problems associated to land degradation and tenure security of the country. The sustainable land management project within the Ministry of Agriculture has been supporting the government’s initiatives under SLMP-1, and there is continued commitment to strengthening its support for land administration and use in SLMP-2. The Rural Land Administration, Certification and Land Use component of SLMP-2 has two subcomponents: Rural Land Administration and Certification, and Local Level Participatory Land Use Planning. The component will benefit an estimated population of 500,000 persons (HHs) through enhancing their tenure security with issuance of land holding certificate and expanding the coverage of participatory land use planning. The objective of the Rural Land Administration and Certification subcomponent is to provide security of tenure to smallholder farmers in the project watersheds by supporting the process of awarding individual land certificates, as an incentive to increase the adoption of sustainable land and water management technologies and practices. The expected performance indicators under this sub-component include:
- Number of individuals/households issued with geo-referenced map-base land certificates (gender disaggregated) or number of individual’s land parcels covered with geo-referenced map-base land certificates and,
- Number of communal lands issued with geo-referenced map-base land certificates or total area (ha) of targeted communal lands covered with geo-referenced map-base land certificates.
The objective of the Local Level Participatory Land Use Planning is to prepare local land use plans for decision making on the best uses of the land and its resources for improved, alternative, sustainable and productive development at the grass root level. This sub-component would complement the watershed management plans by supporting the delineation of land use types at the local level and ensuring optimal alternative for sustainable use of individual plots. The expected performance indicators under this sub-component would be the number of kebele level land use plans prepared. Policy Frame work for Land administration, Certification and Land Use The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia issued Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamation No.465/2005. Regions are also empowered to issue proclamations and the power for rural land administration and use vested to each region by the federal constitution. Accordingly each region has formulated its own land administration and use legislations and implements the land administration and use system based on the objective realities of the region. The regional states also established land administration and use structures up to kebele level to undertake the responsibility of administrating the land. Indeed, the implementation of this component will be in line with the land administration and use proclamations and regulations issued by each region and the standards, guidelines, manuals and harmonized procedures set by the federal government for cadastral surveying, land registration and land use planning.
SLMP-2 will be implemented using the existing government organizational structures and facilitated by a multi- sectoral institutional arrangement comprising five levels - Federal, Regional, Zonal, Woreda (District), and Kebele (Sub-District).
Major Achievements (from July 2016 – July, 2017)
The major achievements during implementation of the project (from July 2016 – July, 2017) are summarized and presented below. These achievements are also grouped under components and sub-components as it was presented in the approved 2016/17AWP&B for better flow and understanding. Different physical and biological soil and water conservation measures have been intervened by SLMP-2 in 135 major watersheds of 6 regional states. Thus, SLM technologies have been fully or partially introduced in 95% of the micro watersheds.For more information Please download, this PDF
Labor Sharing Approach – Best Practice in Sustainable Land Management (SLM) One of the important traditional associations still common in the Ethiopian highlands is called Debo Wonfela in some areas. Debo Wonfela is a labor assistance provided to a land user by his fellow land users. It is a socio-cultural tradition of co-operation where land […]
Compost Making – Best Practice in Sustainable Land Management (SLM) Compost making is a process where waste organic material derived from plants and/or from animals is decomposed by microbial action under aeration and where a friable homogenous humus is produced that can then be used to improve soil fertility and to enhance plant growth and […]
Area closure of degraded land is a practice to be applied on degraded land that has lost its vegetative cover and that has extremely low soil fertilityArea closure was selected as a best practice technology based on the criteria stated in the SLM Best Practices Concept & Manual by the consultant (it needs to be […]
Arbegona Woreda is the characterized by roughed and steep slope landscape. Its agro-ecological zone belongs to 58 % of high and 42 % of low land with average annual rain fall is 1500 mm and with an altitude ranges from 2200 to 3360 masl. Barley and wheat are the dominant cereals or annual crops while […]