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SLMP Ethiopia: Project Overview
The Government of Ethiopia (GoE) recognizes that land degradation is a major economic growth constraining factor not only as an impediment to accelerated and sustainable socioeconomic development, but also as a serious obstacle to the wellbeing of its people. Driven by this, the GoE has developed a nationwide program known as Ethiopian Strategic Investment Framework (ESIF) to guide a systematic approach to combat pressure over the land resources. The international community through its bilateral and multilateral partners has also thrown its weight behind the government’s efforts in this regard. Together they successfully implemented a five-year Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP-1) in the 2008/09-2012/13 period under the Government’s Sustainable Land Management Program led and implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA).Understandably, land degradation challenge remains formidable. So is the transformation of the smallholder agricultural economy. This coupled with the encouraging results obtained during the SLMP-1 implementation has prompted the government and its development partners to launch a follow-on SLMP-2 known as Sustainable Land Management Project-2. It is financially supported by the World Bank, Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Government of Norway. The World Bank’s credit requires the GoE to take full responsibility of preparing a SLMP-2 Implementation Manual (PIM) acceptable to the Bank. For more information please visit http://www.slmethiopia.info.et
The Nigeria gully erosion crisis has been ongoing since before 1980, and affected small and large communities. It is an ecological, environmental, economic, and humanitarian disaster caused by surface runoff. The erosion occurs, notably, in gullies, which grow wider and deeper with each rainfall. Many of the gullies have become ravines, which can be dozens or hundreds of feet deep. Homes and structures routinely collapse, as the gullies expand with each rainy season. If unchecked, the phenomenon will eventually transform the region into a badland. The project Investments include a strategic combination of civil engineering, vegetative land management and other catchment protection measures, and community-led adaptive livelihood initiatives. The sustainability of these investments will be reinforced by strengthening institutions and information services across sectors and States, including support to improve governance, regulatory compliance, environmental monitoring, impact evaluation, catchment and land use planning, and to strengthen Nigeria’s capacity to promote and implement climate-resilient, low-carbon development.
The objective of the project is to reduce vulnerability to soil erosion in targeted sub-watershed. This innovative, multi-sectoral project support State-led interventions to prevent and reverse land degradation on a demand- driven basis, initially focusing on gully erosion sites in the South Eastern states that threaten infrastructure and livelihoods. And with a focus to re -establishing / securing ecosystem functions by managing erosion and deforestation in the North, especially states in the Sokoto-Rima and Upper Niger Basins.
The Nigeria Erosion and Watershed Management Project (NEWMAP) is an eight year State-led Erosion and Land degradation intervention, using the integrated watershed concept to reduce vulnerability to soil erosion in targeted sub-catchments. The Holistic watershed management approach and the use of state of the art designs of engineering/ structural and flexible structures at targeted gully complexes and other erosion sites treated with at least 75% of planned rehabilitation measures for targeted sub-watersheds. Other areas of the NEWMAP concept include:
II. Bio-remediation use of Vegetation (grass) measures to complement civil works in treated gully areas to enhance regeneration
III. Introduction of proper and well terminated drain- age systems at targeted gully complexes and other erosion sites with reduced severity level after treatment
IV. Adequate safeguard measures to strengthen disaster risk reduction and preparedness at State, Local, and community levels.
v. Regular Monitoring and evaluation to improve effectiveness of implementation, ensure ownership and sustainability.
vi. Community ownership and participation towards greater adoption of s u s t a i n a b l e land and water management practices by local people in the sub- watershed and extensive communications and outreach
vii Improved livelihoods of direct project beneficiaries in and around the project States and sites.
viii. Enhance livelihoods in the sub-watershed, and where necessary implementation local R e s e t l e ment Action Plans.(RAP)
The bodies in charge of the project implementation are the Project Steering Committee, Technical Committee and the Project Management Units at both Federal and State level. The general principle is that the Federal Steering Committee is responsible for overall project coordination, alignment of project content and approach, and oversight of activities taking place across participating States through the Federal Project Management Unit (FPMU). The State Project Management Unit (SPMU) is responsible for the practical implementation of project activities within the specific frameworks set by the Project. Read the document here
This component has two sub-components, namely: (1) Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Public and Communal Lands, and (2) Homestead and Farmland Development, Livelihood Improvements and Climate Smart Agriculture. The objective of this component is to support scaling up and adoption of appropriate sustainable land and water management technologies and practices by smallholder farmers and communities in the selected watersheds/woredas. This objective would be achieved through the financing of demand-driven sub SLMP-2 aimed at the introduction of tested watershed management practices such as land and water conservation, afforestation/reforestation, rehabilitation of degraded areas, protection of ecologically critical ecosystems, conservation agriculture such as no-/low tillage, agroforestry, climate-smart agriculture, and pasture management (see Annex 1 for further details). Another relevant goal of this sub-component is to increase carbon stocks at the watershed level and to enhance productivity, resilience and carbon sequestration through the promotion and adoption of climate-smart technologies and practices.
The SLMP-2 appraisal document stipulates four performance monitoring indicators including: Total number of land users (households) adopting sustainable and climate-smart/resilient land management practices on individual lands disaggregated by gender;
- Total rehabilitated land area in hectares (individual and communal) brought under a climate-smart watershed management system as a result of the SLMP-2;
- Carbon sequestered below and above ground (ton Carbon/ha) as a result of the SLMP-2; and
Increase in per cent of households adopting and applying backyard crop (including fruit trees, vegetable gardens), agro-processing and livestock management practices in the targeted watersheds. Up to 832,500 people who belong to households that directly benefit from watershed and landscape management interventions at the site level; and 1,020,000 people will benefit indirectly from improved watersheds and landscapes such as improved water flow downstream, reduced siltation to reservoirs, or reduced risk to erosion and mudslide. More detailed information is provided below by sub-component.
Under this component SLMP-2 will emphasize to develop capacity (knowledge, experience, skill and institutional set up) of the facilitators and implementers from the federal to local levels, agricultural research organizations and academia and other stakeholders including service providers such as extension services, seed and seedling producers, marketing entities and other private entrepreneurs involved in the sustainable management of natural resources for successful adaptation and adoption of sustainable and climate-smart land and water management activities. Furthermore, the capacity of the responsible institutions for land administration and certification, biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, adaptation/resilience to climate change will be enhanced. SLMP-2 will also focus on the review, harmonization and revision of the legislative, civil code and the regulation, stated for registration of formal and informal associations, policy and regulatory frameworks and partnership and networking for sustainable land and water management at the federal, regional, zonal and woreda levels. SLMP-2 will also emphasize on the identifying of gaps with regards to indigenous and exotic knowledge, experiences and skills, and documentation of same to facilitate learning, scaling out and scaling up best practices. The expected performance indicators of this component include: Increase in number of beneficiaries satisfied with services delivered;
- Number of land users (small holder farmers disaggregated by gender) trained in (a) planning and implementation of techniques of sustainable land management practices, (b) entrepreneurship, business development and management, and (c) land rights and registration awareness;
- Number of key service providers (disaggregated by gender) trained in (a) community-based watershed management, (b) cadastral surveying, rural land administration, certification and land use planning, (c) M&E, financial planning and procurement and other cross-cutting issues;
- Number of woredas with well-equipped information centres on sustainable and climate smart/resilient land management practices as a result of SLMP-2; and,
- Number of SLM related strategies developed or improved.
Land in Ethiopia remains a public property with individuals, communities, state companies, cooperatives and institutions having only the use right option. The right of an individual leaseholder includes the right to transfer to legal heirs and the right to lease land out. The Ethiopian Government has advanced forward towards strengthening the land administration and use systems to address problems associated to land degradation and tenure security of the country. The sustainable land management project within the Ministry of Agriculture has been supporting the government’s initiatives under SLMP-1, and there is continued commitment to strengthening its support for land administration and use in SLMP-2. The Rural Land Administration, Certification and Land Use component of SLMP-2 has two subcomponents: Rural Land Administration and Certification, and Local Level Participatory Land Use Planning. The component will benefit an estimated population of 500,000 persons (HHs) through enhancing their tenure security with issuance of land holding certificate and expanding the coverage of participatory land use planning. The objective of the Rural Land Administration and Certification subcomponent is to provide security of tenure to smallholder farmers in the project watersheds by supporting the process of awarding individual land certificates, as an incentive to increase the adoption of sustainable land and water management technologies and practices. The expected performance indicators under this sub-component include:
- Number of individuals/households issued with geo-referenced map-base land certificates (gender disaggregated) or number of individual’s land parcels covered with geo-referenced map-base land certificates and,
- Number of communal lands issued with geo-referenced map-base land certificates or total area (ha) of targeted communal lands covered with geo-referenced map-base land certificates.
The objective of the Local Level Participatory Land Use Planning is to prepare local land use plans for decision making on the best uses of the land and its resources for improved, alternative, sustainable and productive development at the grass root level. This sub-component would complement the watershed management plans by supporting the delineation of land use types at the local level and ensuring optimal alternative for sustainable use of individual plots. The expected performance indicators under this sub-component would be the number of kebele level land use plans prepared. Policy Frame work for Land administration, Certification and Land Use The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia issued Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamation No.465/2005. Regions are also empowered to issue proclamations and the power for rural land administration and use vested to each region by the federal constitution. Accordingly each region has formulated its own land administration and use legislations and implements the land administration and use system based on the objective realities of the region. The regional states also established land administration and use structures up to kebele level to undertake the responsibility of administrating the land. Indeed, the implementation of this component will be in line with the land administration and use proclamations and regulations issued by each region and the standards, guidelines, manuals and harmonized procedures set by the federal government for cadastral surveying, land registration and land use planning.
SLMP-2 will be implemented using the existing government organizational structures and facilitated by a multi- sectoral institutional arrangement comprising five levels - Federal, Regional, Zonal, Woreda (District), and Kebele (Sub-District).
Gully Rapid Action and Slope Stabilization (GRASS): This sub-component of Component 1 supports actions to stabilize and rehabilitate major erosion-related sites, and causes, using both structural and vegetative measures. It is to control damage and stop immediate threats to houses and critical infrastructure. At the same time, it plays the role of entry point into the local communities, to help secure their participation and ownership of the larger erosion and watershed management planning and implementation activities that will bring a more permanent solution. Actions include: (i) emergency and temporary halting of gully and landslide formation, (ii) complementary structural erosion and water control works, (iii) preventative erosion control works, and (iv) disaster risk management activities for civil works, services, and goods for reconstruction and early recovery following a landslide or flooding event. NEWMAP is providing innovative solutions to the age long problem of erosion and watershed degradation in Nigeria.
- The project combines state-of- the-art designs supported with flexible structures (e.g. gabions) and nicely complemented by bio-remediation measures. - These innovations are anchored on active community participation and ownership. - This has resulted in the rehabilitation of 339 hectares of lands and the restoration of livelihoods to over 3825 poorest (58% women) Nigerians in targeted watersheds. In the seven leading states, overall performance has been tremendous as regards the 21 initial intervention sites with physical works now approximately 80 percent completed. Progress across the seven states is variable, with four states; Cross River, Edo, and Enugu and Imo well over 90 percent completion. Only one state (Ebonyi) is below 50 percent completion of planned civil works. A total of 38 new site designs have been reviewed to ensure quality and best standard by Federal Quality Control and Engineering Designs Firm (FQCEDF). Of these, 22 site designs were cleared by the Bank for implementation across these seven states. Nine sites are undergoing active procurement. Field visits to three states showed that engineering designs and execution have greatly improved. Since early 2016, significant progress has been made to strengthen sections on bio-remediation in the design reports. Overall, planned bio-remediation work is 51.5 percent completed across the seven leading states, compared to 73.7 percent for civil works.
Significant progress on livelihoods activities in the seven leading states has been tremendous given the now established Community Interest Groups (CIGs), which provides relevant training, and distribution of sub-grants based on clear award criteria. In the three states with the most progress (Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu), 123 CIGs have been established, covering nearly 3,000 beneficiaries (58 percent females) and with nearly half of the approved funding for sub-grants now disbursed. On resettlement to date, 987 Project Affected People (PAPs) have been identified and approved, and 57% have received their agreed payments.
A major outcome from this component 3 was the support to Nigeria to participate in the Council of the Parties for Climate Change, where one outcome was Nigeria hosting an international meeting with stakeholders on September 9, on the issuance of “Green Bonds”. Guidelines have been established to issue bonds, which would support projects in: environment (reforestation - Jathropha); agriculture (climate smart activities – biofuel/ Jathropha); power (off-grid solar); and Federal Capital Territory (energy efficiency-transportation). Currently, there are 19 projects identified for funding from Green Bonds with a total cost of just over USD 100 million. This is a major success in NEWMAP acting as a catalyst for the development of a high impact and sustainable program. Often smaller activities being supported by Component 3, good progress has been made with three, for example demonstrating fuel efficient oven bakery, high efficient cook stoves, while the remainders are presently underway through a procurement phase.
NEWMAP Component 2 A supports (activity set 2.A.6) Basin and Watershed Planning. The component addresses the development of hydro-meteorological systems for measuring weather parameters, river flows, sediment loads, water quality, and quantity and groundwater conditions using both standard and advanced methods and techniques. The component also addresses data collection, analysis and sharing procedures and training and capacity building needs for federal and state agencies The support includes enhancement of river basins operations, starting with the Anambra-Imo and Cross Rivers basins (and link to their smaller scale watershed and sub-watershed planning) in the NEWMAP focus states, to improve land and water management and reduce erosion. Achievements under this component includes: (i) Installation of 22 meteorological stations and 39 hydrological stations with the work expected to be completed by end of March 2017.
NEWMAP has a robust communication plan which has greatly increased the visibility of the project and made it a flagship project in Africa in less than 5 years of its conception. This comprehensive communication strategy has improved cooperation and increased understanding of project objectives /benefits among the 19 states project State Governments. This has greatly increased […]
The project’s M&E implementation arrangements rests upon a mixed set of M&E responsibilities that balance ownership of M&E and improvement of government systems with important M&E activities that continue to raise project quality including: (i) beneficiary verification and (ii) impact evaluation through statistical data and results from monitoring matrix including performance indicators. NEWMAP’s M&E system […]
NEWMAP use of vegetation (grass) measures to complement civil works in treated gully areas to enhance regeneration as well as the introduction of proper and well terminated drainage systems at targeted gully complexes and other erosion sites with reduced severity level after treatment, has made NEWMAP a game changer in tacking land degradation and gully […]
Promoting Environmental Sustainability In Nigeria : Addressing Land Degradation in Nigeria: Past efforts with Limited Impact. The Environmental problems experienced in Nigeria are very diverse. They include soil degradation, rapid deforestation, urban air and water pollution, desertification, loss of arable land, pollution of water, air, and soil from oil spills. Each of these has notable […]
Support to Data Capture and Improving Data for Decision Making in Nigeria : Making evidence based decisions regarding the environment, infrastructure and natural resources and their interaction with people requires accurate data. This becomes imperative because of the nature of weather and associated issues that could negatively impact on the livelihood and the environment. This […]
What is NEWMAP? The Nigeria Erosion and Watershed Management Project (NEWMAP) is an eight year State-led Erosion and Land degradation intervention, using the integrated watershed concept to reduce vulnerability to soil erosion in targeted sub-catchments. Objective of the Project : The overall aim of the project is to reduce vulnerability to soil erosion in targeted […]